Guidelines About Diagnosis Of Pulmonary Embolism By Radiology
Pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening condition and is the third most cardiovascular condition causing death, following myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical symptoms and risk factors for pulmonary embolism are discussed in detail elsewhere, we shall discuss the imaging features. An essay writer is a person whose job is to create articles and this important topic will also be highlighted in an essay format.
- Not reliable for pulmonary embolism diagnosis, owing to poor sensitivity and specificity.
- Help to rule out other causes of chest pain like pneumothorax and pneumonia.
- Important from an academic reason as few examiners still like to ask named signs of pulmonary embolism (WHY!). I have mentioned a few mnemonics for remembering these.
- Hampton hump: peripheral wedge-shaped opacity corresponding to infarct
- Fleischner sign: Prominent pulmonary artery (FLUSHED pulmonary artery).
- Westermark sign: Regional oligaemia (reduced marks).
- Palla sign: Enlarged right descending pulmonary artery (PA prominent).
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Conventional Pulmonary Angiography:
- Highly sensitive and specific.
- Not feasible in all patients.
- Reserved in patients where endovascular treatment is planned.
- Technically difficult.
- Low sensitivity.
- Can be difficult to perform in the acute setting.
- Has similar results to that of CT pulmonary angiography if images have been acquired optimally and interpreted with expertise.
CT pulmonary angiography:
Has replaced conventional pulmonary angiography as the reference standard for pulmonary embolism diagnosis because of its ease of performing and high sensitivity and specificity. The writer assigned to write my essay request related to radiology topic is qualified to the same academic level or higher than your writing requirements.
Additional screening for lower limb DVT can be performed as well.
Offers alternative diagnosis when pulmonary embolism is absent.
CT pulmonary angiography protocol:
Multidetector CT is preferred (at least 16 slices)
Caudal-cranial direction: Most emboli are located in the lower lobes and, if the patient breathes during image acquisition, there is more excursion of the lower lobes compared with the upper lobes.
IV access: 18- or 20-gauge catheter is preferred.
Pulmonary embolism-specific window: Window width, 700; window level, 100
Detailed protocols can be accessed in this AJR article and here.
Diagnosis is straightforward in most cases.
Pulmonary embolism diagnosis on CT pulmonary angiography is quite straightforward. An essay typer is a person whose job is to create articles and this important topic will also be highlighted in an essay format. Radiologists should also report additional findings that help prognosis, including the presence of right heart strain. It is essential to be a CLINICAL radiologist ourselves than writing “Clinical correlation is suggested”.